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In July 2019, UN ambassadors of 37 countries, including DRC, have signed a joint letter to the UNHRC defending China's treatment of Uyghurs and other Muslim ethnic minorities.[133]. In a conference in Madagascar, Tshibanda said that Kabila's government had "consulted election experts" from Congo, the United Nations and elsewhere, and that "it has been decided that the voter registration operation will end on July 31, 2017, and that election will take place in April 2018. The Democratic Republic of the Congo is the most biodiverse African country.[92]. [63][64], In 2009, The New York Times reported that people in the Congo continued to die at a rate of an estimated 45,000 per month[65] – estimates of the number who have died from the long conflict range from 900,000 to 5,400,000. Its findings confirmed Casement's report of abuses, concluding that the population of the Congo had been "reduced by half" during this period. [113], The United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women in 2006 expressed concern that in the post-war transition period, the promotion of women's human rights and gender equality is not seen as a priority. Sixty-two Protestant denominations are federated under the umbrella of the Church of Christ in Congo. [136], The Democratic Republic of Congo is widely considered one of the world's richest countries in natural resources; its untapped deposits of raw minerals are estimated to be worth in excess of US$24 trillion. [citation needed]. DR Congo has twice won the African Cup of Nations football tournament. [8][9][10][11] The two wars devastated the country. Distance France » République démocratique du Congo. The African country generated up to 70% of its export revenue from minerals in the 1970s and 1980s and was particularly hit when resource prices deteriorated at that time. The development of metal tools during this time period revolutionized agriculture. Ultimately, nine African countries and around twenty armed groups became involved in the war,[7] which resulted in the deaths of 5.4 million people. The Democratic Republic of the Congo is extremely rich in natural resources but has suffered from political instability, a lack of infrastructure, corruption, and centuries of both commercial and colonial extraction and exploitation with little widespread development. As the neighboring French colony of Middle Congo (Moyen Congo) also chose the name "Republic of Congo" upon achieving its independence, the two countries were more commonly known as "Congo-Léopoldville" and "Congo-Brazzaville", after their capital cities. During the Free State, his colonial military unit, the Force Publique, forced the local population to produce rubber. DRC has the world's second-highest rate of infant mortality (after Chad). Due to the presence of undisciplined and poorly trained ex-rebels, as well as a lack of funding and having spent years fighting against different militias, the FARDC suffers from rampant corruption and inefficiency. [150][151][152] Gertler and Steinmetz put GEC's 75% share in Komoto Oliveira Virgule (KOV), the project made of up of Tilwezembe and Kananga, along with the Kolwesi concentrator, into Nikanor plc. The Democratic Republic of the Congo has fewer all-weather paved highways than any country of its population and size in Africa — a total of 2,250 km (1,400 mi), of which only 1,226 km (762 mi) is in good condition (see below). "DR Congo: Cursed by its natural wealth". [218] Poor governance and low economic conditions have reduced the effectiveness of these protections, especially during war times. Conflict arose over the administration of the territory, which became known as the Congo Crisis. Ertürk added that "Armed groups attack local communities, loot, rape, kidnap women and children, and make them work as sexual slaves". Appel inconnu ou manqué de l'République du Congo? On 25 November 1965, Army Chief of Staff Joseph-Désiré Mobutu, who later renamed himself Mobutu Sese Seko, officially came into power through a coup d'état. [177], The Congolese National Police (PNC) are the primary police force in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Gondola, Ch. By far the largest mines in the DRC are located in southern Katanga province (formerly Shaba), and are highly mechanized, with a capacity of several million tons per year of copper and cobalt ore, and refining capability for metal ore. The United Nations mission in the DRC is its largest and most expensive peacekeeping effort, but it shut down five UN bases near Masisi in 2017, after the US led a push to cut costs. In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, there are both coal and crude oil resources that were mainly used domestically in 2008. [211], Rais Neza Boneza, an author from the Katanga province of the Democratic Republic of Congo, wrote novels and poems to promote artistic expressions as a way to address and deal with conflicts.[212]. The government – not the President – is responsible to the Parliament. [183] As many as 250 ethnic groups have been identified and named. In 2015, elections were scheduled for late 2016 and a tenuous peace held in the Congo.[74]. [225] A recent study in the DRC revealed that almost all of the animals are taken from the Congo each year, at 93% of all live animals there are in the forest are extracted for bush meat, whereas a sustainable rate would be 20%. [206] Four years later the first local administrative council was elected. For some who cannot afford farmed produce it is a free meal. Nearly 900 Banunu people from four villages were slaughtered by members of the Batende community in a deep-rooted rivalry over monthly tribal duties, land, fields and water resources. The name for the Congo state is derived in part from the river. It was first led by Sir Henry Morton Stanley, who undertook his explorations under the sponsorship of King Leopold II of Belgium. ", Al Jazeera News (9 March 2018). [62] On and off fighting in the Ituri conflict occurred between the Nationalist and Integrationist Front (FNI) and the Union of Congolese Patriots (UPC) who claimed to represent the Lendu and Hema ethnic groups, respectively. After the UN and Western governments refused his requests for aid and Lumumba stated that he was open to any country, including the Soviet Union, for assistance in the crisis, the US and Belgium became wary and oversaw his removal from office by Kasa-Vubu on 5 September and ultimate execution by Belgian-led Katangese troops on 17 January 1961. In 2018, the United Nations estimated the country's population to be 84 million people,[181][182] a rapid increase from 39.1 million in 1992 despite the ongoing war. [76] Due to disruption of planting and harvesting caused by the conflict, the UN estimated in March 2018 that two million children risk starvation. derived from Portuguese usage) remained common. [98] However, the study indicated that poaching is still an existing problem, with researchers finding 380 snares and park guards continually being ambushed and killed by poachers.[98]. Many authors who have contributed to the success of Congolese literature are now living abroad due to economic and political issues. The coalition allied with some opposition figures, led by Laurent-Désiré Kabila, becoming the Alliance of Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Congo (AFDL). ", sfn error: no target: CITEREFDrumbl2012 (. Species loss has been cited as a problem in the DRC, brought about or exacerbated by reasons that include deforestation for mining, wood fuel, infrastructure or agriculture, war, illegal poaching and increased consumption of bush meat due to overpopulation and lack of food security. Rubber sales made a fortune for Leopold, who built several buildings in Brussels and Ostend to honor himself and his country. The lava passed the airport but ruined the runway, trapping several airplanes. The reforms turned out to be largely cosmetic. COG Alpha-3. On 5 September 1960, Kasavubu dismissed Lumumba from office. Congo Airways was based at Kinshasa's international airport. Three routes in the Trans-African Highway network pass through DR Congo: The Democratic Republic of Congo has thousands of kilometres of navigable waterways. One study found that more than 400,000 women are raped in the Democratic Republic of Congo every year. They allied with the Zairian Armed Forces (FAZ) to launch a campaign against Congolese ethnic Tutsis in eastern Zaire.[52]. When the country was a Belgian colony, the Belgian colonizers instituted teaching and use of the four national languages in primary schools, making it one of the few African nations to have had literacy in local languages during the European colonial period. Nearly all such infrastructure projects were aimed at making it easier to increase the assets which Leopold and his associates could extract from the colony. Kahuzi-Biega National Park (1980), Tremalt owned 80% of Savannah Mining, which held concessions C17 and C18 in Katanga Province and 50% of the Mukondo project. The Congo is inhabited by several great ape species: the common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), the bonobo (Pan paniscus), the eastern gorilla (Gorilla beringei), and possibly the western gorilla (Gorilla gorilla). Other parties that emerged included the Parti Solidaire Africain (PSA) led by Antoine Gizenga, and the Parti National du Peuple (PNP) led by Albert Delvaux and Laurent Mbariko.[35]. The transitional constitution also established a relatively independent judiciary, headed by a Supreme Court with constitutional interpretation powers.[100]. [78], Fierce fighting has erupted in Masisi between government forces and a powerful local warlord, General Delta. [192] The impact of the Catholic Church in the Democratic Republic of Congo is difficult to overestimate. The Forces Armées de la République Démocratique du Congo (FARDC) consist of about 144,000 personnel, the majority of whom are part of the land forces, also with a small air force and an even smaller navy. Despite such vast mineral wealth, the economy of the Democratic Republic of the Congo has declined drastically since the mid-1980s. [2], At the time of independence, the country was named the Republic of Congo-Léopoldville to distinguish it from its neighbour the Republic of the Congo-Brazzaville. Local authorities and elements within the security forces were suspected of lending them support. [137][138][139] The Congo has 70% of the world's coltan, a third of its cobalt, more than 30% of its diamond reserves, and a tenth of its copper.[140][141]. [195], Traditional religions embody such concepts as monotheism, animism, vitalism, spirit and ancestor worship, witchcraft, and sorcery and vary widely among ethnic groups. The Democratic Republic of Congo signed the UN treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons. There are a few rare pieces of literature dated back to before WWI, but it was not until about 1954 that literature written in French made its appearance in the Congo. [216] One of the primary defences for species and habitat protection in the DRC is its system of national parks and reserves, which gives protected status to nearly 12% of the DRC's rainforest. Also stipulated was that rebels like the RCD-N, RCD-ML, and the Mai-Mai would become part of the new armed forces. Some of the African bands sing in Lingala, one of the main languages in the DRC. Much concern has been raised about great ape extinction. Newspapers of the DRC include L'Avenir, Radion Télévision Mwangaza, La Conscience [fr], L'Observateur [fr], Le Phare, Le Potentiel, Le Soft and LeCongolais.CD,[207] a web-based daily. Virunga National Park (1979), In 1997 Mobutu fled and Kabila marched into Kinshasa, named himself president, and reverted the name of the country to the Democratic Republic of the Congo. After 1918, Belgium was rewarded for the participation of the Force Publique in the East African campaign with a League of Nations mandate over the previously German colony of Ruanda-Urundi. [121][122], In July 2007, the International Committee of the Red Cross expressed concern about the situation in eastern DRC. RTNC currently broadcasts in Lingala, French, and English. In 1926 the colonial capital moved from Boma to Léopoldville, some 300 kilometres (190 mi) further upstream into the interior. Together, Mongo, Luba and Kongo peoples (Bantu) and Mangbetu-Azande peoples constitute around 45% of the population. [230] According to another study which was taken during the time of the civil war in the Okapi Faunal Reserve, there was a 50% reduction in the abundance of elephants and a vast change in the distribution of them to the more secluded areas of the park. Before 2015, the country had 11 provinces. Internationally, the country is especially famous for its professional basketball NBA and football players. [93] It is the only country in the world in which bonobos are found in the wild. [171][172] Yellow fever also affects DRC. [223], Bush meat refers to any meat that is procured from the wild. The International Criminal Court prosecutor opened the case in June 2004. The lava poisoned the water of Lake Kivu, killing fish. There is also considerable migration for commercial activities from other African countries and the rest of the world, but these movements are not well studied. BBC. [2] The provinces are subdivided into 145 territories and 32 cities. On 10 January 2019, the electoral commission announced opposition candidate Félix Tshisekedi as the winner of the presidential vote. The tragic history of colonialism and war lead the Congolese people to settle in a place of complacency, accepting the culture that was forced upon them by Belgium. [185], Figures for Congolese nationals abroad vary greatly depending on the source, from three to six million. Five of the country's national parks are listed as World Heritage Sites: the Garumba, Kahuzi-Biega, Salonga and Virunga National Parks, and the Okapi Wildlife Reserve. In 2007, Tremalt was owned by Prairie International Ltd, of which Dan Gertler's family trust was a major shareholder. Kinshasa and Brazzaville are on opposite sides of the river at the Pool. Amidst widespread confusion and chaos, a temporary government was led by technicians (the Collège des commissaires généraux). [citation needed], The Albertine Rift plays a key role in shaping the Congo's geography. [117][118], Female genital mutilation (FGM) is also practiced in DRC, although not on a large scale. [89], On 17 January 2002 Mount Nyiragongo erupted in Congo, with the lava running out at 64 km/h (40 mph) and 46 m (50 yd) wide. Conservationists have particularly worried about primates. [41] An investigation by the Belgium's Parliament in 2001 found Belgium "morally responsible" for the murder of Lumumba, and the country has since officially apologised for its role in his death.[42]. [217] Five of these parks and reserves are UNESCO world heritage sites, including Africa’s first national park Virunga national park. In April 2011, through aid from Global Alliance for Vaccines, a new vaccine to prevent pneumococcal disease was introduced around Kinshasa. The law on sexual violence, DRC 2006 (Les lois sur les violences sexuelles) reads (in French): CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (. To enforce the rubber quotas, the army, the Force Publique, was called in and made the practice of cutting off the limbs of the natives a matter of policy. info) French: République démocratique du Congo), also known as Congo-Kinshasa, Zaire, DR Congo, DRC (the official acronym), the DROC, or simply the Congo, is a country located in Central Africa.It was formerly called Zaire (1971–1997). [citation needed], Leopold formally acquired rights to the Congo territory at the Conference of Berlin in 1885 and made the land his private property. [14] The sovereign state is a member of the United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement, African Union, and COMESA. "Zaire (Democratic Republic of Congo)", – Religion by Location. The chemical industry consumes significant quantities of cobalt in a variety of applications including catalysts for petroleum and chemical processing; drying agents for paints and inks; ground coats for porcelain enamels; decolorant for ceramics and glass; and pigments for ceramics, paints, and plastics. Chronic economic mismanagement, political corruption and internal conflicts have led to long-term under-investment of infrastructure. Kimbanguism, officially "the church of Christ on Earth by the prophet Simon Kimbangu", now has about three million members,[194] primarily among the Bakongo of Bas-Congo and Kinshasa. The DRC has produced a considerable number of refugees and asylum-seekers located in the region and beyond. The new president had the staunch support of the United States because of his opposition to Communism; the US believed that his administration would serve as an effective counter to communist movements in Africa. It straddles the Equator, with one-third to the North and two-thirds to the South. The Democratic Republic of Congo has the infrastructure for hydro-electricity from the Congo River at the Inga dams. Nom de pays République démocratique du Congo Code pays selon la norme ISO (ISO-3166) ISO 3166-1. "From 1990 to 1993, the United States facilitated Mobutu's attempts to hijack political change", one academic wrote, and "also assisted the rebellion of Laurent-Desire Kabila that overthrew the Mobutu regime. News of the abuses began to circulate. Destabilisation in the east resulting from the 1994 Rwandan genocide and disenfranchisement among the eastern Banyamulenge (Congolese Tutsi) population led to a 1996 invasion led by Tutsi FPR-ruled Rwanda, which began the First Congo War.[2]. During World War II, the Belgian Congo provided a crucial source of income for the Belgian government-in-exile in London, and the Force Publique again participated in Allied campaigns in Africa. Three-fifths of the Congo basin lies in the DR Congo. [217] The human cost of protecting these parks has also been high with 200 park ranger deaths in the past 20 years. The international country code of Congo (Kinshasa) is CD or COD. [54] In 2012 Bosco Ntaganda, the leader of the CNDP, and troops loyal to him, mutinied and formed the rebel military March 23 Movement, claiming the government violated the treaty. Dikembe Mutombo is one of the best African basketball players to ever play the game. After gaining their independence from Belgium in the 1960s, new authors, such as Guy Menga and Jean Pierre Makouta-Mboukou, were inspired by older authors, such as Jean Malonga from Congo-Brazzaville, and used writing to bring attention to new issues affecting the Congo. Major tributaries include the Kasai, Sangha, Ubangi, Ruzizi, Aruwimi, and Lulonga. Several Congolese players and players of Congolese descent—including strikers Romelu Lukaku, Yannick Bolasie, and Dieumerci Mbokani—have gained prominence in world football. ECOCCDKI XXX - SWIFT Code (BIC) - ECOBANK REPUBLIQUE DEMOCRATIQUE DU CONGO SA in KINSHASA - CONGO. [151], Katanga Mining Limited, a Swiss-owned company, owns the Luilu Metallurgical Plant, which has a capacity of 175,000 tonnes of copper and 8,000 tonnes of cobalt per year, making it the largest cobalt refinery in the world. [168], The hospitals in the Democratic Republic of the Congo include the General Hospital of Kinshasa. This atmosphere contributed to Mobutu's declaring the Third Republic in 1990, whose constitution was supposed to pave the way for democratic reform. Matadi to Lubumbashi, 2,700 km (1,700 mi) by road). [citation needed]. The move would open 21.5% of the Virunga park for exploitation, this is highly criticised by animal rights activists as it would threaten the habitat of mountain gorillas and other endangered species. ", "Ranking Of The World's Diamond Mines By Estimated 2013 Production", "Congo's Riches, Looted by Renegade Troops", "DRC's Katanga governor woos bona fide resources investors, heaps praise on Nikanor", "Katanga Project Update and 2Q 2008 Financials, Katanga Mining Limited, 12 August 2008", "Watchdog says $88m missing in Congolese mining taxes", "Energie hydraulique des barrages d'Inga : Grands potentiels pour le développement de la République Démocratique du Congo et de l'Afrique", "DR Congo economic and strategic significance", "The Power Plants That May Save a Park, and Aid a Country", "Enquête Démographique et de Santé en République Démocratique du Congo 2013–2014", Constitution de la République démocratique du Congo – Wikisource, "UIS.Stat (see: Education >> Participation >> Enrollment >> Enrollment by level of education)", "Congo, With Donors' Help, Introduces New Vaccine for Pneumococcal Disease", "The World Factbook – Field Listing : HIV/AIDS : adult prevalence rate", "Democratic Republic of the Congo, Epidemiological profile, World Malaria Report 2014", "Yellow fever in the Democratic Republic of Congo", "The World Factbook – Country Comparison : Maternal mortality rate", "The Latest: Ebola deaths top 1,000 in Congo outbreak", "Millions 'on the edge' in DR Congo, now in even greater danger of tipping over: WFP", "The World Factbook: Africa - Congo, Democratic Republic of the", United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Pygmies want UN tribunal to address cannibalism, "Migration en République Démocratique du Congo: Profil national 2009", "Calls for Angola to Investigate Abuse of Congolese Migrants", "Enquête Démographique et de Santé (EDS-RDC) 2013-2014", "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency", "Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / Islam and Christianity in Sub-Saharan Africa". Shortly after independence the Force Publique mutinied, and on 11 July the province of Katanga (led by Moïse Tshombe) and South Kasai engaged in secessionist struggles against the new leadership. With more than 25 million members, it constitutes one of the largest Protestant bodies in the world. "M23 fighters patrolled the streets of Congo's main cities, firing on or arresting protesters or anyone else deemed to be a threat to the president," they said. [224] What animals are hunted are done so indiscriminately without thought of the importance of certain species that could be ecosystem engineers or keystone species. [citation needed] Taking advantage of the leadership crisis between Kasavubu and Tshombe, Mobutu garnered enough support within the army to launch a coup. [26], Leopold had designs on what was to become the Congo as a colony. In 1908, Leopold, despite his initial reluctance, ceded the so-called Free State to Belgium, thus it became known as the Belgian Congo. In a campaign to identify himself with African nationalism, starting on 1 June 1966, Mobutu renamed the nation's cities: Léopoldville became Kinshasa (the country was now Congo-Kinshasa), Stanleyville became Kisangani, Elisabethville became Lubumbashi, and Coquilhatville became Mbandaka. The transition from the Congo Free State to the Belgian Congo was a break but it also featured a large degree of continuity. Its capital is Kinshasa. It also provided for the creation of a Conseil Superieur de la Defense (Superior Defence Council) which would declare states of siege or war and give advice on security sector reform, disarmament/demobilisation, and national defence policy. [13] Two million children risk starvation, and the fighting has displaced 4.5 million people. A coalition of Rwandan and Ugandan armies invaded Zaire to overthrow the government of Mobutu, and ultimately to control the mineral resources of Zaire,[citation needed] launching the First Congo War. As Zaire they have participated in the World Cup Football (Final stage) in 1974. The FARDC is organised on the basis of brigades, which are dispersed throughout the provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Registered in the Isle of Man, reached a market capitalization of $1.5 billion by 2007. [215] Some attempts to combat species loss in countries such as the DRC are actions such as the UN's Sustainable Development Goals (SDG), specifically SDG 15 Life on Land, the primary goals of which is to increase reforestation and biodiversity and reduce species loss, desertification, and illegal poaching. [28], In the Free State, colonists coerced the local population into producing rubber, for which the spread of automobiles and development of rubber tires created a growing international market. Several international airlines service Kinshasa's international airport and a few also offer international flights to Lubumbashi International Airport. Lumumba had previously appointed Joseph Mobutu chief of staff of the new Congo army, Armée Nationale Congolaise (ANC). Intervention im Kongo: eine kritische Analyse der Befriedungspolitik von UN und EU. At independence in 1960, DRC was the second-most industrialized country in Africa after South Africa; it boasted a thriving mining sector and a relatively productive agriculture sector. [23], The geographical area now known as the Democratic Republic of the Congo was populated as early as 90,000 years ago, as shown by the 1988 discovery of the Semliki harpoon at Katanda, one of the oldest barbed harpoons ever found, believed to have been used to catch giant river catfish.[24][25]. Mobutu's government received considerable support from the United States, due to its anti-communist stance during the Cold War. Schatzberg has called it the country's "only truly national institution apart from the state. [130], In the 21st century, Chinese investment in the DRC and Congolese exports to China have grown rapidly. The first members of the Baha'i Faith to live in the country came from Uganda in 1953. [130] The largest use of cobalt is in superalloys, used to make jet engine parts. [153] In January 2008 Katanga Mining acquired Nikanor for $452 million. MONUC took control of the city. Mobutu got one, and we took the other nine. The 30% who live in urban areas have been the most open to Western influences. Appel inconnu ou manqué de l'République démocratique du Congo? Kasa-Vubu's death in April 1969 ensured that no person with First Republic credentials could challenge his rule. Lake Edward and Lake Albert are connected by the Semliki River. The rebels were thought to be Allied Democratic Forces. [49] International aid, most often in the form of loans, enriched Mobutu while he allowed national infrastructure such as roads to deteriorate to as little as one-quarter of what had existed in 1960. [69], The war in the Congo has been described as the bloodiest war since World War II. High, glaciated mountains (Rwenzori Mountains) are found in the extreme eastern region. [58][59] In March 2013, the United Nations Security Council authorized the United Nations Force Intervention Brigade, the first offensive United Nations peacekeeping unit, to neutralize armed groups. Lumumba declared Kasavubu's action unconstitutional and a crisis between the two leaders developed. The parliament elected Joseph Kasavubu as President, of the Alliance des Bakongo (ABAKO) party. [162] The DRC is a member of three electrical power pools. Four hundred thousand people were evacuated from the city during the eruption. [166] Since the end of the civil war, the situation has improved tremendously, with the number of children enrolled in primary schools rising from 5.5 million in 2002 to 13.8 million in 2015, and the number of children enrolled in secondary schools rising from 2.8 million in 2007 to 4.6 million in 2015 according to UNESCO. In the west, the Kingdom of Kongo ruled around the mouth of the Congo River from the 14th to 19th centuries. In 2012 plans were announced to build a national Baha'i House of Worship in the country.

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